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These are questions often asked and very easy to answer.
It is Jesus that started Sunday Worship as that is the Day that He Rose from the Dead and it is the "same day" that He began His Church.
It is the Glorious life giving Resurrection of Jesus and the birth of His Church that the Church gathers to commemorate every Sunday as it gathers and worships Jesus.
Acts 20:7 And upon the first day of the week (Sunday), when the disciples came together to break bread, Paul preached unto them, ready to depart on the morrow; and continued his speech until midnight.
1 Corinthians 16:1-2 Now concerning the collection (financial giving) for the saints, as I have given order to the churches of Galatia, even so do ye. Upon the first day of the week (Sunday) let every one of you lay by him in store, as God hath prospered him, that there be no gatherings when I come.
What is Worship?
Psalms 95:6 Come let us Worship and bow down: let us kneel before the LORD our maker.
The word worship literally means to acknowledge the source and sustaining of our life, the Christian acknowledges that life comes from God as God is the creator and sustainer of all life. The embodiment of life is the Resurrection of Jesus, as it is now the Resurrection Life of Jesus that we the Christian live in and take part in having been rescued by Jesus from our own certain death through sin. Therefore it has been since the first Sunday and continues until this day that the Church gathers to Worship God on Sunday by acknowledging His Life giving Resurrection Life.
What is the Church?
The Christian Church is a unique gathering of people who's sins have been paid for in full by Jesus on the cross. The word Church means "out - gathering" those that are taken out of this sinful world and gathered together into the sinless image of Jesus by receiving His Holy Spirit, and having received the Spirit of God the Christian has now passed from death in sin into Life in Jesus.
Why hasn't the Church always existed?
True Christianity is an intimate Spiritual Personal Relationship with God and a Relationship with God is as old as Creation so it is accurate to say that Adam and Eve are the first Christians but then Sin separated mankind from an intimate Spiritual relationship with God and therefore postponed Christianity until after the Redemption of mankind via the Cross and the Resurrection of Jesus providing for us a renewed intimate Spiritual Relationship.
The Church did not exist during the Old Testament times. In other words, Noah, Abraham, King David, Solomon, and even John the Baptist, although each was in a relationship with God, they were not Christians and therefore not in the intimate Spiritual relationship that the Church enjoys, and for a very good reason, each of these people lived and died prior to the Cross of Jesus. Before the Cross of Jesus the remedy for Sin had not yet occurred and with sin a "Gathering of the Sinless (in Image)" was not yet available as God's Spirit is not intimately available with Sin.
Once Jesus came into humanity in the Virgin Birth and then died on the cross as full payment for all of the sins of the world then on His "Resurrection Day" the Church age could then begin. The Church could not be gathered prior to the cross and without the resurrection there would not be the Living Leader.
The Church/Christians are Identified as the one's who have acknowledged the Resurrection of Jesus and therefore have Received the Spirit of God and by receiving the Spirit of God are now in the Sinless Image of God our Father as the Christian is now a Child of God. This event of Jesus giving the Spirit and of individuals each receiving the Spirit of God began on Sunday the very day of the Resurrection of Jesus and continues on to this day as the Resurrection of Jesus and His Holy Spirit are the lifeblood of Christianity.
John 20:19-23 Then the same day (Resurrection Sunday) at evening, being the first day of the week (Sunday), when the doors were shut where the disciples were assembled for fear of the Jews, came Jesus and stood in the midst, and saith unto them, "Peace be unto you." And when He had so said, He showed unto them His hands and His side. Then were the disciples glad, when they saw the Lord. Then said Jesus to them again, Peace be unto you: as my Father hath sent me, even so send I you. And when He had said this, He breathed on them, and saith unto them, "Receive ye the Holy Ghost: (Become a Christian) Whose soever sins ye remit, they are remitted unto them; and whose soever sins ye retain, they are retained.
Note: The verses and Biblical content of John 20:19-23 are dealing with a person becoming a Christian, with Salvation and with Regeneration via the Holy Spirit. Forgiveness of sins (via the cross of Jesus) and the imparting Baptism of Jesus (via His Resurrection) and the indwelling of the Holy Spirit into a person are direct functions of the cross and the resurrection of Jesus Christ. The knowledge of the removal of sin in the life of an individual person is referenced here in the Bible on the day of the resurrection of Jesus not on the day of Pentecost. Pentecost is referenced in the Bible in context with empowerment and of a person being a witness of Jesus but not in context of salvation as the Resurrection Day is associated with salvation.
Regarding the phrase "Whose soever sins ye remit, they are remitted unto them; and whose soever sins ye retain, they are retained" this clearly demonstrates that the removal of sin had occurred at the cross and that the knowledge of sin, the removal or the presence of sin in the life of an individual can be discerned by a Christian with the Baptism indwelling of the Holy Spirit since the day of the Resurrection of Jesus and of the giving of the Holy Spirit.
There are several examples in the Bible of people discerning the presence or removal of sin from the lives of individuals. All Christians even today can at times discern the spiritual state of another individual, how often has someone said that they are a Christian then deny Jesus and every tenant of Christianity and live a life completely opposed to the Biblical Christian precepts, we can often discern that the person though outwardly professing Christianity their sins remain. On occasion some people are in deep despair fearing that they can no longer be reconciled to God because they have offended God too much or have blasphemed the Holy Spirit and now conclude that they are eternally damned yet a Christian can often discern that God has not given up on them and that actually their sins are remitted and that they should seek after God because they will find God.
Acts 8:20-23 But Peter said unto him (Simon the sorcerer), Thy money perish with thee, because thou hast thought that the gift of God may be purchased with money. Thou hast neither part nor lot in this matter: for thy heart is not right in the sight of God. Repent therefore of this thy wickedness, and pray God, if perhaps the thought of thine heart may be forgiven thee. For I perceive that thou art in the gall of bitterness, and in the bond of iniquity ...
Acts 17:22 Then Paul stood in the midst of Mars' hill, and said, Ye men of Athens, I perceive that in all things ye are too superstitious.
Acts 26:27-28 King Agrippa, believest thou the prophets? I know (perceive) that thou believest. Then Agrippa said unto Paul, Almost thou persuadest me to be a Christian.
The Biblical reference also demonstrates that Christian Salvation the forgiveness of sins and entering into a relationship with the Holy God by becoming a child of God through receiving His Spirit indwelling in us is an actual event and it is an event predicated on an individual's faith and confession. Christianity is unique in that an individual can become a Christian at any moment and in any place regardless of time or circumstances. Since the cross and resurrection of Jesus Christ a person does not need another external event, not a Pentecost or any event, not a certain moon phase or any celestial - comet occurrence and certainly not a ritual, a feast or a festival to become a Christian but with just a simple faith in the living Savior Jesus and a desire to be united to God a person will become a new creation a 'born again' Christian.
Did the Church actually start at Pentecost?
Sometimes people think that the Church did not start until fifty days after the Resurrection of Jesus during a Feast called "Pentecost" Acts 2:1-4 but remember it is the Cross and Resurrection of Jesus that paved the way for the Church allowing for the individual receiving of the Holy Spirit of God, and not the waiting of Fifty days by the disciples that paved the way for the Church. There is a Feast of Pentecost every year but there is only one Cross and Resurrection of Jesus. There is not a fifty day gap between the Resurrection and the start of the Church. The same people gathered together and (Empowered) in Acts 2:1-4 had already received the Holy Spirit back in John 20:19-23 and would again be filled (Empowered) in Acts 4:31 and at other times as the Holy Spirit is leading.
Acts 4:31 And when they had prayed, the place was shaken where they were assembled together; and they were all filled (Empowered) with the Holy Ghost, and they spake the word of God with boldness.
Is Sunday now also the Sabbath day of the Church?
It is also important to note that Sunday is not a Sabbath Day and therefore the Church is not resting on Sunday when it gathers to Worship God but is Rejoicing in the Living, Loving, Jesus.
Saturday is still the Sabbath day proscribed by God for the Jewish people to physically follow by physically resting but for the Church our rest is Spiritual we rest in complete faith of the accomplished, completed work of Jesus, His Cross and His Resurrection.
Exodus 20:10 But the Seventh day (Saturday) is the Sabbath ..
Luke 24:1 Now upon the First day (Sunday) of the week, very early in the morning, they came unto the sepulcher (tomb), bringing the spices which they had prepared, and certain others with them. And they found the stone rolled away from the sepulcher. And they entered in, and found not the body of Jesus.
In establishing a time for the Resurrection - the disciples arrive at the tomb at about Sunrise, just prior, so we know that Jesus did not Resurrect later than sunrise and some might wonder if He rose earlier than Sunrise but the Biblical answer is no as it is exactly at sunrise that Jesus is revealing Himself to be Alive.
Also many of the Bible's names, references, types, and prophecies all reveal that He is the "Sunrise from on High." For example Jesus physically entered into the world in His Virgin birth at night into the darkness of this world - representing that Jesus is the light that shined and came into the dark world.
Continuing, Jesus (the Light of the world) Resurrected at Sunrise as His Resurrection is the new Dawn of Everlasting Life.
Luke 1:78 Through the tender mercy of our God; whereby the Dayspring (Sunrise) from on high hath visited us, To give light to them that sit in darkness and in the shadow of death, to guide our feet into the way of peace.
Isaiah 60:1 Arise (sunrise), shine; for thy light is come, and the Glory of the LORD is Risen (Resurrected) upon thee.
2 Corinthians 4:3,4 But if our Gospel be hid, it is hid to them that are lost: In whom the God of this world hath blinded the minds of them which believe not, lest the light of the Glorious Gospel of Christ, who is the image of God, should shine unto them.
2 Corinthians 4:6 For God, who commanded the light to shine out of darkness, hath shined in our hearts, to give the light of the knowledge of the Glory of God in the face (appearance) of Jesus Christ.
Romans 13:12 The night is far spent, the day is at hand (sunrise): let us therefore cast off the works of darkness, and let us put on the armor of light.
Could the Church have stopped for a while and then restarted?
Since it is the Cross and Resurrection of Jesus and Only the Cross and Resurrection of Jesus that paved the way for the Christian Church the Christian Church has continued and will continue until Jesus receives His Christian Church unto Himself in Heaven where He is. In order for the Church to have started and stopped and started again it would Require that the Holy Spirit would no longer be available to mankind and then Jesus would have to be re-Crucified and the Holy Spirit re-given, events that could never happen again and would never happen again as the one Crucifixion of Jesus is sufficient for ALL Sins for ALL Time and the one Resurrection of Jesus is sufficient for all Life for ALL Time.
Romans 6:9-11 Knowing that Christ being raised from the dead dieth no more; death hath no more dominion over Him. For in that He died, He died unto sin once: but in that He liveth, He liveth unto God. Likewise reckon ye also yourselves to be dead indeed unto sin, but alive unto God through Jesus Christ our Lord.
Hebrews 10:10 By the which will we are sanctified through the offering of the body of Jesus Christ once for all (Believers).
It really is a common Christian tenant that the Christian Church began with Jesus, the Eternal, Leader and Founder, giving His Spirit to His followers on the day of His Resurrection Sunday and that the Church has continued and will continue until Jesus Himself receives His Christian Church up into Heaven where He is currently at and we will forever be with Him in His Glorious Fellowship.
God Bless you,
David Anson Brown